Co-funded by:
Mentored by:

Using questionnaires to measure attitudes and behaviours of buildings users

This project will study the use of survey questionnaires to collect data on attitudes and behaviours of building users, particularly those behaviours related to sustainability issues and energy consumption. Survey questionnaires are the prevailing data collection method to measure user satisfaction with buildings; however, validity and reliability of current instruments is not known. Designing survey questionnaires is a complex task, and specific knowledge is needed to write effective and understandable survey questions to assure a high level of statistical quality for collected data.

The research objective is to identify existing measurement instruments used by architects and building researchers to collect and understand the needs of building users in the design process and post-occupancy evaluations, assess validity and comprehensibility of existing instruments, then design and assess improved survey questionnaires.

In the project’s first phase, a literature review of relevant works that use surveys or other social science research methods to study building users will be conducted, a collection survey question examples will be compiled, and focus groups with architects and building researchers will be held. In the second phase, survey questions will be selected for evaluation with quantitative and qualitative questionnaire pre-testing methods. Based on analysis of the results, an improved survey questionnaire will be developed. In the third phase, the improved instrument will be applied to two case studies and further assessments of the validity will be made based on respondent debriefing.

Solutions for the building sector will be developed based on project results in the form of guidelines to measure building occupant behaviour with higher validity. With improvements in validity and reliability of the measurement, researchers and practitioners in the field will be able to collect more accurate data to inform building design, energy performance planning, energy use models, and energy sustainability rating systems.

InnoRenew CoE project activities

This is a postdoctoral research project and the InnoRenew CoE is the only partner. Activities will include leading and managing the project, review of literature and methods, evaluation and analysis of questionnaires and their application, and dissemination activities.

Work packages and results

Work package 1: Project management


Work package 2: Overview of methods


  • D2.1 List of literature
  • D2.2 Inventory of building characteristics and user’s attitudes and behaviour (internal deliverable)
  • D2.3 List of survey items used to study building users’ attitudes and behaviour (internal deliverable)
  • D2.4 Focus group transcripts (internal deliverable)

Work package 3: Evaluation of questions


  • D3.1 Survey questionnaires selected for evaluation (internal deliverable)
  • D3.2 Evaluation of questions with Survey Quality Predictor (internal deliverable)
  • D3.3 Evaluation of questions with the text corpora approach (internal deliverable)
  • D3.4 Improved survey questionnaires (see deliverable D5.2)

Work package 4: Application of questions


  • D4.1 Final questionnaires with debriefing questions (see deliverable D5.2)
  • D4.2 Cleaned dataset for first case study (see deliverable D5.2)
  • D4.3 Cleaned dataset for second case study (see deliverable D5.2)
  • D4.4 Report, evaluation and discussion of results (items 30-32 in bibliography below)

Work package 5: Dissemination activities


  • D5.1 Website
  • D5.2 Deposition of data in repository (items 36-50 in bibliography below)
  • D5.3 Submitted scientific papers (items 1-5 in bibliography below)
  • D5.4 Conference presentations (items 8-9 and 12-17 in bibliography below)
  • D5.5 Workshop for stakeholders (replaced with item 23 below)
  • D5.6 Article about the project for the general public (items 6-7 in bibliography below)

Bibliografic references

Original scientific articles

  1. SLAVEC, Ana. Underrated innovativeness of micro-enterprises compared to small to medium enterprises in the Slovenian forest-wood sector. Sustainability. 2022, iss. 4, art. 1991, str. 1-17, ilustr. ISSN 2071-1050., DOI: 3390/su14041991. [COBISS.SI-ID 99177987]
  2. SLAVEC, Ana, SAJINČIČ, Nežka, STARMAN, Vesna. Use of smartphone cameras and other applications while traveling to sustain outdoor cultural heritage. Sustainability. 2021, vol. 13, iss. 13, str. 1-20, ilustr. ISSN 2071-1050., DOI: 3390/su13137312. [COBISS.SI-ID 68757251]
  3. PETRAVIĆ, Luka, ARH, Rok, GABROVEC, Tina, JAZBEC, Lucija, RUPČIĆ, Nika, STAREŠINIČ, Nina, ZORMAN, Lea, PRETNAR ŽAGAR, Ajda, SRAKAR, Andrej, ZWITTER, Matjaž, SLAVEC, Ana. Factors affecting attitudes towards COVID-19 vaccination : an online survey in Slovenia. Vaccines. 2021, vol. 9, iss. 3, str. 1-15. ISSN 2076-393X., DOI: 3390/vaccines9030247. [COBISS.SI-ID 55075075]
  4. SLAVEC, Ana, HOEBEN, Annechien D., MORENO TORRES, Miguel, PRIMOŽIČ, Lea, STERN, Tobias. When intentions do not matter : climate change mitigation and adaptation innovations in the forest-based sector. Forest Policy and Economics : a companion journal to Forest Ecology and Management. [Print ed.]. dec. 2023, vol. 157, art. 103074, str. 1-14, ilustr. ISSN 1389-9341., DOI: 1016/j.forpol.2023.103074. [COBISS.SI-ID 172987907]

Review scientific papers

  1. SLAVEC, Ana, KAVČIČ, Maša. Razmere hranjenja in uporaba embalažnih materialov v depojih slovenskih muzejev. Glasnik Slovenskega etnološkega društva. [Spletna izd.]. 2023, vol. 63, št. 2, str. 58-74, graf. prikazi. ISSN 2536-4324. [COBISS.SI-ID 176458499]

Popular science artciles

  1. SLAVEC, Ana. Odnos do cepljenja proti Covid-19. Metina lista : spletna postaja za osebe širokih pogledov in aktivnega duha. 29. dec. 2021. ISSN 2536-3425. [COBISS.SI-ID 99237635]
  2. SLAVEC, Ana. Odprta znanost – več kot le krilatica. InnoRenew CoE. 2019, ilustr. ISSN 2784-4102. [COBISS.SI-ID 61495555]

Published scientific papers at conferences

  1. BANGERT, Daniel, DAVIDSON, Joy, DIGGS, Steve, GROOTVELD, Marjan, MUFTIĆ, Sanjin, PISONI, Cristiana, SHANAHAN, Hugh, SITZ, Lina, SLAVEC, Ana, SEANG, Sothearath, VENKATARAMAN, Shanmugasundaram. The CODATA-RDA Data Steward school. V: 15th International Digital Curation Conference, 17-20 February 2020, Dublin. [S. l.: s. n.[, 2020. 1 spletni vir. [COBISS.SI-ID 31738371]
  2. SLAVEC, Ana, PRIMOŽIČ, Lea, HOBEN, Annechien, MORENO TORRES, Miguel, STERN, Tobias. Odzivanje slovenskih in avstrijskih podjetij v gozdno-lesnem sektorju na podnebne spremembe. V: IGNJATOVIĆ, Miroljub (ur.), KANJUO-MRČELA, Aleksandra (ur.), KUHAR, Roman (ur.). Socio-ekološka transformacija : Slovensko sociološko srečanje : Ljubljana, 4. in 5. november 2022. Elektronska izd. Ljubljana: Slovensko sociološko društvo, 2022. Str. 120-126, ilustr. ISBN 978-961-94302-7-9. [COBISS.SI-ID 147280899]

Lectures at a foregin university

  1. SLAVEC, Ana. Research data management for data on renewable materials and products, School of Chemical Engineering, Aalto University, Espoo, October 22, 2019. [COBISS.SI-ID 1541664196]
  2. SLAVEC, Ana. Research data management for data on renewable materials and products, Mendel University, Faculty of forest and wood technology, Brno, 4th November 2019. [COBISS.SI-ID 1541694404]

Published abstract of a scientific paper at a conference

  1. SLAVEC, Ana, PRELOVŠEK NIEMELÄ, Eva. Developing temporary housing solutions for displaced persons : a study of user needs. V: Integrating sustainability and health in buildings through renewable materials : book of abstracts. InnoRenew CoE International Conference 2020, 3. September 2020, Izola. Izola: InnoRenew CoE, 2020. Str. 12. [COBISS.SI-ID 27162115]
  2. SLAVEC, Ana. The use of survey questionnaires to measure attitudes and behaviours related to sustainable building issues. V: ESRA 2023 Conference : [17 July to 21 July 2023, University of Milan-Bicocca]. European Survey Research Association, 2023. [COBISS.SI-ID 177573379]
  3. SLAVEC, Ana. Residential renovation in Slovenia : comparison of survey and registry data. V: KASTRIN, Andrej (ur.), LUSA, Lara (ur.). Applied statistics 2023 : international conference : program and abstracts : September 24-26, 2023, Koper, Slovenia. Ljubljana: Statistical Society of Slovenia, 2023. Str. 29. [COBISS.SI-ID 166013187]
  4. SLAVEC, Ana, BURNARD, Michael David. Innovations in business process digitalisation in the forest-wood sector in Slovenia. V: PEJIĆ BACH, Mirjana (ur.). Book of abstracts of the ENTRENOVA – Enterprise Research Innovation Conference (Online), September, 2023, Dubrovnik & hibrid, Croatia. Zagreb: Association for advancing research and innovation in economy “IRENET”, [2023]. Str. 67. Book of abstracts of the ENTRENOVA – Enterprise Research Innovation Conference (Online), vol. 9, no. 1. ISSN 2806-612X. [COBISS.SI-ID 177577475]
  5. SLAVEC, Ana, SAJINČIČ, Nežka, PRIMOŽIČ, Lea. Vpliv psihološke razdalje na zaznavanje podnebnih tveganj : primer analize preferenc slovenskih potrošnikov pri prenovi in opremljanju stanovanj. V: KUHAR, Roman (ur.), SEDMAK, Mateja (ur.), JUREKOVIČ, Igor (ur.). Dolgoživa družba : posledice in izzivi : Slovensko sociološko srečanje : Koper, 19.-21. oktober 2023. Ljubljana: Slovensko sociološko društvo, 2023. Str. 35. ISBN 978-961-94302-8-6. [COBISS.SI-ID 177150467]
  6. SLAVEC, Ana, SAJINČIČ, Nežka, PRIMOŽIČ, Lea. The impact of environmental awareness on customer needs and purchasing behaviour related to residential renovation and furnishing in Slovenia. V: PRIMOŽIČ, Lea (ur.), SIMMONS, Amy Noel (ur.), FABIAN, Gertrud (ur.). IRIC 2023 : interdisciplinary solutions for sustainable buildings : book of abstracts : 13-14 September 2023, Izola, Slovenia. Electronic ed. Izola: Innorenew CoE; Koper: University of Primorska Press, 2023. Str. 26. InnoRenew CoE International Conference series. ISBN 978-961-293-258-9, ISBN 978-961-293-259-6. ISSN 2784-6679. [COBISS.SI-ID 174447875]

Final report on research results

  1. SLAVEC, Ana, SAJINČIČ, Nežka, PRIMOŽIČ, Lea. Poročilo o anketi o obnavljanju in opremljanju stanovanj ter odnosu do podnebnih sprememb. [Koper: Univerza na Primorskem; Geneve: CERN, 2023]. [COBISS.SI-ID 178223619]
  2. SLAVEC, Ana, PRIMOŽIČ, Lea, HOEBEN, Annechien D., MORENO TORRES, Miguel, STERN, Tobias. Report on the survey on attitudes towards climate change and innovation activities of Slovenian and Austrian companies in the forest-wood sector., DOI: 5281/zenodo.7790082. [COBISS.SI-ID 150090243]

Completed scientific collection of research data

  1. PETRAVIĆ, Luka, ARH, Rok, GABROVEC, Tina, JAZBEC, Lucija, RUPČIĆ, Nika, STAREŠINIČ, Nina, ZORMAN, Lea, ZWITTER, Matjaž, SLAVEC, Ana, PRETNAR ŽAGAR, Ajda (927), SRAKAR, Andrej (927), ZORKO, Andraž (927), ARHAR, Igor (927), HOHKRAUT, Tomaž (927). Odnos do cepljenja proti SARS-COV-2, 2020 : priložnostni vzorec. Ljubljana: Fakulteta za družbene vede, Arhiv družboslovnih podatkov, 2021., DOI: 17898/ADP_SARSPR20_V1. [COBISS.SI-ID 66554115]
  2. IWANOVSKA, Magdalena, ŠTEBE, Janez, SLAVEC, Ana, et al., ZORKO, Andraž (927). Počutje in odnos do cepljenja, 2021 : namera za cepljenje proti covid-19 na Poljskem, v Romuniji in Sloveniji. Ljubljana: Fakulteta za družbene vede, Arhiv družboslovnih podatkov, 2021. 1 spletni vir. DOI: 17898/ADP_POCP21_V1. [COBISS.SI-ID 104136707]
  3. SLAVEC, Ana, MORENO TORRES, Miguel, STERN, Tobias. Odnos do podnebnih sprememb in inovacijske dejavnosti slovenskih in avstrijskih podjetij v gozdno-lesnem sektorju, 2021. Ljubljana: Fakulteta za družbene vede, Arhiv družboslovnih podatkov, 2022. 1 spletni vir. Univerze na Primorskem – RUP, DOI: 17898/ADP_OPSIDP21_V1. [COBISS.SI-ID 150091011]
  4. SLAVEC, Ana. Visual Data in Web Surveys: The Case of Bedroom Flooring. WEB DATA OPP Workshop, Barcelona, March 2024.