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Open Research Results

Chemical and appearance changes of wood due to artificial weathering – Dose–response model

Marta Petrillo, Jakub Sandak, Paolo Grossi, Anna Sandak
Journal of Near Infrared Spectroscopy
wood weathering dose–response model multi-sensor measurement near infrared colour gloss

The aim of this study was to assess a model for the surface degradation kinetics of natural wood exposed to artificial weathering. The photochemical and physical processes of weathering result in simultaneous changes of both the wood matrix composition (i.e. lignin content, cellulose crystallinity i...

Review: wood modification techniques based on cell wall bulking with non-toxic chemical reagents

Kelly Peeters, Emmanuel Fredon, Philippe Gérardin, Charlotte Grosse, Callum A.S. Hill, Clément L'Hostis, Miha Humar, Dennis Jones, Erik Larnøy, Marion Noël, Anna Sandak
cell wall bulking esterification reaction Maillard reaction non-toxic reagents wood modification

Conference abstract for Final COST Action FP1407 International Conference - Living with modified wood...

Is sedentary behavior increasing with age?

Podrekar Nastja, Kozinc Žiga, Šarabon Nejc
sedentary behavior young workers, older workers correlation

Sedentary behavior has been identified as a significant risk factor for pre-mortality independently of daily physical activity. At the same time the number of older adults remaining at work increases nowadays. The issue of sedentary behavior in older adults is therefore a growing field of research. ...

Common themes in Wood Modification and Environmental Impact Assessment of Wood

Michael Burnard, Marko Posavčević, Edo Kegel
bibliometrics network analysis wood modification environmental impact assessment meta-analysis

Bibliometric analysis utilises data mining techniques to capture selected aspects about a set of publications. For instance, researchers can quickly assess how research themes change over time, identify new trends in research, gaps in the knowledge base, assess collaboration patterns, identify key r...

Exploring connections between researchers and ideas in the European Hardwoods Innovation Alliance using two-mode social network analysis

Ana Slavec, Barbara Rovere, Uwe Kies, Andreas Kleinschmidt von Lengefeld
innovation research mapping and clustering social network analysis.

Two-mode social network analysis (SNA) can be applied to data that consists of two sets of units, from analysing persons and societies to authors and papers. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the possibilities of this approach for the analysis of connections between researchers and their fu...

Human health research at the InnoRenew CoE

Michael Burnard, Jure Pohleven, Dean Lipovac, Nastja Podrekar
Human Health built environment wood buildings restorative environmental and ergonomic design mental wellbeing ergonomics active aging volatile organic compounds

An overview of ongoing research at the Innorenew CoE to improve human health in the built environment (Fall/Winter 2018). Presented at the 2018 SWST/JWRS International Convention in Nagoya, Japan....

Wood protection from the olive industry

Matthew Schwarzkopf, Michael Burnard
modification olive oil protection wood

Conference abstract for Final COST Action FP1407 International Conference - Living with modified wood...

The presentation highlights novel approaches to active ageing in outdoor Environments....

Experimental and numerical analysis of flexible polymer connections for CLT buildings

Boris Azinović, Miha Kramar, Tomaž Pazlar, Matija Gams, Arkadiusz Kwiecien, Jan Weckendorf, Iztok Šušteršič
CLT connections flexible adhesive polyurethane energy dissipation equivalent viscous damping cyclic tests dynamic tests

The paper explores the possibility of using flexible adhesives to dissipate energy in CLT buildings during earthquakes. In the first series of tests, a rod glued in a CLT panel with flexible adhesive was investigated. The connection was tested in pull-pull configuration using cyclic, tension-only lo...

Enabling innovation in the European construction sector: A case study in open innovation

Barbara Rovere, Michael Burnard, Andreja Kutnar, Eric Hansen
open innovation, construction europe Slovenia

Poster presented at the 5th Annual World Open Innovation Conference held in Berkeley, California 13-14 December 2018...

Extended Utilization of Forest Production & Wood Material: Hardwood Usage from Native Properties to Wood Modification

Peter Rademacher, Radim Rousek, Petr Pařil, Jan Baar, Stanislav Horníček, Zuzana Paschová, Róbert Németh, Tamás Hofmann, Fanni Fodor, Gerald Koch, Andreja Kutnar
Extended biomass production lesser used wood species wood modification high use value for recovered wood wood based panels renewable sources for adhesives

Conference abstract for 8th Hardwood Conference...

Within this article, we reviewed the most important standards and recommendations on office furniture design. Office environments, designed in line with these recommendations, decrease the risk of injuries and other problems, associated with sedentary jobs. ...

Utilisation of chemically modified lampante oil for wood protection

Matthew Schwarzkopf, Michael Burnard, Viacheslav Tverezovskiy, Andreas Treu, Miha Humar, Andreja Kutnar
European Journal of Wood and Wood Products
wood protection olive oil wood modification

Within the Slovenian region of Istria, the olive growing and oil production industry is strong. This industry has a long history and the olives grown here have high levels of biologically active compounds including a variety of phenolic compounds. Using residual materials generated by this industry ...

Glued-in rods in cross laminated timber – Numerical simulations and parametric studies

Boris Azinović, Henrik Danielsson, Erik Serrano, Miha Kramar
Construction and Building Materials
Glued-in rods Cross laminated timber (CLT) Parametric study Nonlinear numerical modelling Glued-in length Rod diameter Rod orientation

Numerical simulations and parametric studies of glued-in rods in cross-laminated timber have been performed. The simulations were based on 3D finite element analysis, using a cohesive surface model for the bond-lines between the laminations and the bond-line along the rod. The parametric studies inv...

An optical method for rapid examination of check development in decorative plywood panels

Michael David Burnard, Lech Muzynski, Scott Leavengood, Lisa Ganio
European Journal of Wood and Wood Products
Digital Image Correlation optical methods crack assessment maple veneer plywood

Common methods for assessment of surface checking in decorative plywood panels rely on manual handling and visual inspection of specimens, a laborious procedure practically limiting the number of materials and variables that may be considered within one project. In this study, a new automated optica...

Static and dynamic performance of wood modified with phenol formaldehyde

Jaka Gašper Pečnk, Hannes Schwager, Matthew Schwarzkopf, Holger Militz
fatigue life stress level phenol formaldehyde chemical modification

Conference abstract for 8th Hardwood Conference...

Assessment of the chemical change in heat treated pine wood by near infrared spectroscopy

Zuzana Vidholdová, Anna Sandak, Jakub Sandak
Pine Heat treatment xylograms FT-NIR

Fourier-transform near-infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIR) was used as none-destructive method to determinate changes in the chemical structure of heat-treated wood. For this purpose, pine sapwood (Pinus sylvestris L.) was treated at different temperatures (from 100 °C to 240 °C) a...

Hemp in Slovenia: challenges and opportunities

Laetitia Marrot
hemp fibres Slovenia renewable

The poster describes the environmental advantages of using hemp, the mechanical properties of the hemp fibres, the extend of the cultivation of hemp in Slovenia and Europe, the hurdles encountered in Slovenia and the envisioned work...

Thermally modified (TM) beech wood: compression properties, fracture toughness and cohesive law in mode II obtained from the three-point end-notched flexure (3ENF) test

Václav Sebera, Miguel Redón-Santafé, Martin Brabec, David Děcký, Petr Čermák, Jan Tippner, Jaromír Milch
beech brittleness of wood cohesive law compliance-based beam method (CBBM) compressive elastic modulus digital image correlation (DIC) equivalent crack length approach (ECLA) fracture mode II thermal modification thermally modified wood (TMW) three-point end-notched flexure (3ENF)

The fracture properties of thermally modified beech (Fagus sylvatica) wood (TMW) at 180° and 200°C were evaluated in mode II using the three-point end-notched flexure (3ENF) scheme assisted by threedimensional (3D) stereovision equipment for obtaining displacements and strains. The complianc...

Experimental and numerical analysis of fracture toughness of thermally modified beech in mode II

Václav Sebera, Miguel Redon, Martin Brabec, David Děcký, Petr Čermák, Jaromír Milch, Jan Tippner
thermally modified beech fracture toughness crack digital image correlation finite element analysis

Conference abstract for Final COST Action FP1407 International Conference - Living with modified wood...

Bio-based building skin

Anna Sandak, Jakub Sandak, Marcin Brzezicki, Andreja Kutnar
Environmental Footprints and Eco-design of Products and Processes

This book provides a compendium of material properties, demonstrates several successful examples of bio-based materials’ application in building facades, and offers ideas for new designs and novel solutions. It features a state-of-the-art review, addresses the latest trends in material selecti...

Data management at the InnoRenew CoE

Ana Slavec, Michael D. Burnard, Andreja Kutnar
data management InnoRenew CoE

The InnoRenew CoE Renewable Materials and Healthy Environments Research and Innovation Centre of Excellence is a young interdisciplinary research institute with two key research areas: wood modification and restorative environmental and ergonomic design. It was established as part of the InnoRenew p...

Open innovation in manufacturing industries: A literature review

Barbara Rovere, Michael Burnard, Andreja Kutnar, Eric Hansen
open innovation,

Contribution submitted to and presented at the 2018 WESTERN FORESTRY GRADUATE RESEARCH SYMPOSIUM held at Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA in April 2018....

Micromechanics of the internal bond in wood plastic composites: integrating measurement and modeling

Matthew Schwarzkopf, Lech Muszyński, Chad C. Hammerquist, John A. Nairn
Wood Science and Technology
wood digital image correlation strain

In this study, an integrated approach combining experimental measurements and numerical modeling was used for characterization of load transfer in the wood/matrix interface in wood plastic composites (WPCs). The experimental methodology was based on optical measurement of surface displacements and s...

Conference abstract for 8th Hardwood Conference...

Strategies for improvement of visibility and acceptance of modified wood

Anna Sandak, Viviana Golja, Julia Belda, Jens Geissmann-Fuchs, Kelly Peeters, Jakub Sandak, Janja Juhant Grkman, Silvo Hribernik, Dean Lipovac, Peter Nadrah
modified wood interaction with materials human perception product visibility

Conference abstract for Final COST Action FP1407 International Conference - Living with modified wood...

Life Cycle Assessment – Opportunities for Forest Products Sector

Andreja Kutnar, Callum AS Hill
wood S-LCA product category rules (PCR) environmental impact environmental product declaration (EPD) forest products life cycle assessment (LCA) O-LCA

The utilization of wood in long life products, such as construction materials in the built environment, is an e ective way to optimize the use of natural resources while also reducing negative environmental impacts. However, the environmental bene ts of timber, especially in the construction sector,...

European Hardwoods Innovation Alliance: first results of a European survey on hardwoods research needs and priorities

Barbara Rovere, Ana Slavec, Uwe Kies
innovation scientific collaboration social network analysis survey

Conference abstract for 8th Hardwood Conference...

This repository contains raw data from experiments investigating the reliability of shear-wave elastography (SWE) to assess muscle stiffness. The first dataset contains meat specimen experiments (using porcine meat specimens). The second and third datasets contain the measurements of human subjects,...

Can modified wood compete with untreated wood in preference of people?

Dean Lipovac, Michael D. Burnard, Andreja Kutnar, Anna Sandak
wood modification perception evaluation preference well-being

Conference abstract for Final COST Action FP1407 International Conference - Living with modified wood...

Conference abstract for Final COST Action FP1407 International Conference - Living with modified wood...

Development of a Sensorized Timber Processor Head Prototype – Part 1: Sensors Description and Hardware Integration

Jakub Sandak, Anna Sandak, Stefano Marrazza, Gianni Picchi
timber quality processor head sensors NIR cutting forces

Forest operations are in constant development to provide increasingly higher standards of economic and environmental sustainability. The latest innovation trends are concentrated in the generation, storage and management of data related to the harvesting process, timber products and logistics operat...

The effect of sedentary work on trunk functions – in context of older employees

Kaja Kastelic, Matej Voglar, Nejc Šarabon
sensory-motor trunk functions sitting workplace lower back pain

Aging of the (active) population bring many challenges, which mainly results from a lack of health. The aim of our study was to test, whether there are differences in sensory-motor trunk functions between younger and older employees. We also tested whether work influence them differently. Fifty (30 ...

The presentation highlights the main ergonomic guidelines for the design of home, work and school furniture and the environment....

A healthy lifestyle includes many factors. One of the main ones is sufficient physical activity, which positively affects many health-related parameters: it reduces the risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, musculoskeletal disorders, and promotes the individual's mental abilities. Despi...

Manufacturing fit-for-purpose paper packaging containers with controlled biodegradation rate by optimizing addition of natural fillers

Anna Sandak, Jakub Sandak, Izabela Modzelewska
waste paper paper pots cereal bran degradation rate soil FT-NIR

Natural fillers were utilized for manufacturing horticultural packaging products. Five types of pots produced from waste paper with wheat and rye bran additions were compared with commercially available containers. The aim was to examine the influence of soil type on the degradation rate and kinetic...

Sedentary behavior is a well-known risk factor for several non-communicable diseases. The aim of our study was to investigate sedentary time and physical activity in crane operators and office workers within work and non-work context. Fourteen crane operators and 15 office workers wore activPAL cont...

Structuring of cellulose (nano) substrates into functional porous materials

Silvo Hribernik, Tanja Kos, Mojca Bozic, Manja Kurecic, Karin Stana Kleinschek
Polymer science

Abstract of a lecture at 3rd edition of International Conference and Exhibition on Polymer Chemistry, March 26-28, 2018, Vienna, Austria...

Durability of modified wood and bio-based materials under outdoor conditions

Heikko Kallakas, Kevin Visnapuu, Triinu Poltimäe, Jaan Kers, Anna Sandak
modified wood bio-based materials natural weathering durability façade performance

Conference abstract for Final COST Action FP1407 International Conference - Living with modified wood...

Professional journal article describing the potential for open innovation in the furniture sector in Slovenia. Article is in the Slovene Language. ...

Acute effect of full time office work in real environment on postural actions and lumbar range of motion

Kastelic Kaja, Matej Voglar, Šarabon Nejc
Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology

Introduction: Prolonged sitting is often proposed as a risk factor for low back pain development. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the acute effect of full time office work on sensorimotor trunk functions. Methods: Seventeen healthy office workers participated in the study. Maximal lumbar f...

Damage progression analysis in a historical timber framed wall under cyclic loads through an image-based tracking method

Jakub Sandak, Mariapaola Riggio, Nicola Ruggieri, Anna Sandak
Construction and Building Materials
Image-based tracking Cyclic loads Damage progression Historical timber-framed wall

The scope of this paper is to analyse local phenomena associated with the damage progression and postelastic behaviour of a historical timber-framed wall system under cyclic loads. It was assessed on series of points identified on the wall by processing time-resolved sequences of images. Dedicated m...

Human interaction with wood – what to measure, how to measure?

Anna Sandak, Jakub Sandak, Agnieszka Landowska, Veronika Kotradyová
wood perception wearable sensors preference test

Conference abstract for Final COST Action FP1407 International Conference - Living with modified wood...

An examination of the potential for the use of the Maillard reaction to modify wood

Kelly Peeters, Erik Larnøy, Andreja Kutnar, Callum A.S. Hill
International Wood Products Journal
Beech and pine Maillard reaction primary amines sugars thermal reaction water deliverable wood modification

Finding efficient ways to decrease wood decay caused by fungi is an important issue in the timber construction. A possible way to avoid wood decay by fungi is by reducing the water content of wood, since water is a primary condition for fungal growth. Bulking of the wood cell wall by chemical rea...

Multi-depot bus schedule assignment with parking and maintenance constraints for intercity transportation over a planning period

Dávid Balázs, Krész Miklós
Transportation Letters
Bus scheduling parking maintenance long-term planning public transportation assignment integer programming network flow

This article introduces the schedule assignment problem for public transit, which aims to assign vehicle blocks of a planning period to buses in the fleet of a transportation company. This assignment has to satisfy several constraints, the most important of which is compatibility, meaning that certa...

Experimental investigation of the axial strength of glued-in rods in cross laminated timber

Boris Azinović, Erik Serrano, Miha Kramar, Tomaž Pazlar
Materials and Structures
Glued-in rods Cross laminated timber (CLT) Pull–pull experiment Glued-in length Rod-to-grain angle Failure mechanisms in CLT

The paper presents results from an experimental assessment of glued-in rods in cross laminated timber (CLT). For the purposes of the study more than 60 pull–pull tests were performed, where the specimens varied in terms of bonded-in length (from 80 to 400 mm), rod diameter (16–...

Wood preservatives utilizing low-value olive oil production by-products: Analysis

Michael Burnard, Matthew Schwarzkopf, Viacheslav Tverezovskiy, Andreas Treu, Miha Humar, Andreja Kutnar

The objective of this study was to develop and assess the efficacy of two experimental methodologies for the maleinisation of lampante oil to be used for wood protection. Two maleinisation techniques were used to chemically modify low-value lampante oil in an attempt to limit leaching, increase hyd...

Prototype of the Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Expert System for Particleboard Identification

Anna Sandak, Jakub Sandak, Dominika Janiszewska, Salim Hiziroglu, Marta Petrillo, Paolo Grossi
Journal of Spectroscopy

The overall goal of this work was to develop a prototype expert system assisting quality control and traceability of particleboard panels on the production floor. Four different types of particleboards manufactured at the laboratory scale and in industrial plants were evaluated. The material differe...

Community based influence maximization in the Independent Cascade Model

László Hajdu, Miklós Krész, András Bóta
Proceedings of the 2018 Federated Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems
Community detection Infection maximization Independent Cascade Model

Community detection is a widely discussed topic in network science which allows us to discover detailed information about the connections between members of a given group. Communities play a critical role in the spreading of viruses or the diffusion of information. In [1], [8] Kempe et al. proposed ...

Wood modification technologies - a review

Dick Sandberg, Andreja Kutnar, George Mantanis
iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry
Chemical Treatments Thermo-hydro-mechanical LCA Acetylation Furfurylation Resin Impregnation Environmental Impacts Densification

The market for new durable products of modified wood has increased substan- tially during the last few years, especially in Europe. This increased interest depends partly on the restricted use of toxic preservatives due to increased environmental concern, as well as the need for reduced maintenance ...


Iztok Šušteršić, Bruno Dujič, Simon Aicher
Cross-laminated timber Hybrid plates Experimental testing Ribs Material rationalisation

Cross laminated timber (CLT, X-lam) started its mass production in the beginning of the 21st century. Over time it has become one of the most used products in the timber construction industry with its worldwide use constantly growing. The quantity of yearly cut timber especially in Europe is sl...

Assessment of lignocellulosic-substrate fungi-based materials

Laetitia Marrot, Marica Mikuljan, Franc Pohleven
fungi wood hemp lignocellulosic

Conference abstract for Final COST Action FP1407 International Conference - Living with modified wood...

Examining the evolution and convergence of wood modification and environmental impact assessment in research

Michael Burnard, Marko Posavčević, Edo Kegel
iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry
Bibliometrics Data Mining Network Analysis Wood Modification Environmental Impact Assessment COST Action FP1407 Wood
Supplemental material:

This paper uses network analysis of two fields to demonstrate the value of the technique, and to examine how the fields have changed over time and to what extent they overlap. This was of interest for a COST Action (FP1407, ModWoodLife:

Performance of three-layer composites with densified surface layers of Nothofagus pumilio and N. antarctica from Southern Patagonian forests

Matthew Schwarzkopf, Michael Burnard, Guillermo Martínez Pastur, Lucas Monelas, Andreja Kutnar
Wood Material Science & Engineering
Densification silviculture low-density wood modified wood hardwoods

Nothofagus pumilio and N. antarctica forests of Southern Patagonia, Argentina are currently being managed for production of saw logs with fast growing conditions. The result of these management strategies is faster growing forests, but also an increase in the percentage of low-density wood. The moti...

Fracture toughness of thermally modified wood in mode II

Václav Sebera, Miguel Redon, Martin Brabec, David Děcký, Petr Čermák, Jaromír Milch, Jan Tippner
fracture toughness thermal modification mode II digital image correlation end-notched test

Conference abstract for 8th Hardwood Conference...